Research into the scientific basis of Qigong and Energy Medicine can be found in at least the following disciplines: Psychoneuroimmunology, Epigenetics, Quantum Biology, Biophotonics, Biophysics, Clinical Psychology, Complex Systems Biology, Neurobiology, Molecular Dynamics, Quantum Mechanics, Bioenergy, Proteomics Bioengineering, Frequency Therapy, Transcriptomics, Mind-Body Practices, Neurophysics, Psychotherapy, Non-linear Biomedical Physics, Integrative Medicine, Energy Psychology, Bioimaging, Chemical Kinetics, Kinesiology, Metabolomics, Theoretical Physics, Connectomics, Integrative Medicine Research, Molecular Genetics, and Signal Transduction. Each of these fields at some level is addressing bioenergy.
Energy Medicine is the diagnostic and therapeutic use of energy.
A fundamental unanswered question concerning western medical science and practice is: What is the relationship between physiology and bioenergy? At a basic level, bioenergy ("qi" pronounced "chee") includes interactions of the chemicals in the body, including hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and genetic material. Yet bioenergy also includes electricity, magnetism, heat, sound, and light which are given off and taken in by molecules, cells, and organs.
Although 'qi' cannot currently be measured and is not recognized by western medical science, bioenergy can be measured. See Bioenergetic Effects of Qigong.
If Western medicine applied the principles of modern physics, it would understand human beings are composed of information (energy) interacting with other energy (environment) to profoundly impact our physical and emotional health.
Current practices in allopathic medicine measure different types of energy in the human body by using quantum field dynamics involved in nuclear medicine, radiology, and imaging diagnostics. Once diagnosed, current treatments revert to biochemistry instead of using biophysics therapies to treat the disturbances in subtle energies detected and used for diagnostics. Quantum physics teaches us there is no difference between energy and matter. All systems in the human being, from the atomic to the molecular level, are constantly in motion-creating resonance. This resonance is important to understanding how subtle energy directs and maintains health and wellness in the human being. Energy medicine (EM), whether human touch or device-based, is the use of known subtle energy fields to therapeutically assess and treat energetic imbalances, bringing the body's systems back to homeostasis (balance). The future of EM depends on the ability of allopathic medicine to merge physics with biochemistry. Biophoton emissions as well as signal transduction and cell signaling communication systems are widely accepted in today's medicine. This technology needs to be expanded to include the existence of the human biofield (or human energy field) to better understand that disturbances in the coherence of energy patterns are indications of disease and aging. Future perspectives include understanding cellular voltage potentials and how they relate to health and wellness, understanding the overlap between the endocrine and chakra systems, and understanding how EM therapeutically enhances psychoneuroimmunology (mind-body) medicine. Read article.
The future of EM depends on the ability of Western medicine to merge physics with biochemistry. Western medicine uses physics to diagnose and then immediately reverts to a biochemical model to treat. It is widely accepted that quantum physics drives the energy behind diagnostic equipment. Biophoton emissions as well as signal transduction and cell signaling communication systems in the body are also widely accepted in today’s medicine. However, the idea of a cellular and molecular global communication system involving energy fields is beyond the central dogma of Western medicine.
Dr. Shin LIn of UC Irvine's Laboratory for Mind/Body Signaling and Energy Research gives a short introduction to scientific research on Qigong and Tai Chi.
Six Pillars of Energy Medicine: Clinical Strengths of a Complemenatary Paradigm. The current status of energy medicine and its increasing challenge to the biochemical paradigm that has dominated conventional medicine are reviewed. Although energy medicine represents only a small fraction of 1% of the $2.2 trillion healthcare industry, 6 properties of energy medicine give it strengths that could augment conventional health care models. These include the ways energy medicine (1) can address biological processes at their energetic foundations (reach), (2) regulates biological processes with precision, speed, and fl exibility (effi ciency), (3) fosters health and prevents illness with interventions that can be readily, economically, and noninvasively applied (practicality), (4) includes methods that can be used on an at-home, self-help basis, fostering a stronger patient-practitioner partnership in the healing process (patient empowerment), (5) adopts non-linear concepts consistent with distant healing, the healing impact of prayer, and the role of intention in healing (quantum compatibility), and (6) strengthens the integration of body, mind, and spirit, leading not only to a focus on healing, but to achieving greater well-being, peace, and passion for life (holistic orientation). (David Feinstein, PhD; Donna Eden. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008;14(1):44-54.)
Qigong - Energy Medicine for the New Millenium. This paper characterizes Qigong as Energy Medicine by examining the scientific basis, the medical need for, and the scientific research supporting the benefits of Energy Medicine. It also proposes a Human Energy Project to fully research and map the human bio-energy field. The Qigong Institute.
Toward an Electromagnetic Paradigm for Biology and Medicine. Work by Lund, Burr, Becker, and others leads to the inescapable conclusion that organisms tend to express quasisystemic electric changes when perturbed, and, conversely, will tend toward wellness either through endogenous repair currents or the application of equivalent external currents. We show that an all-inclusive electromagnetic field representation for living systems is fully consistent with this extensive body of work. This electrogenomic field may provide the basis for a new paradigm in biology and medicine that is radically different from the present emphasis on molecular biology and biochemistry. An electromagnetic field description also enables a more rational transformation from the genome than the present endpoint, universally stated in terms of the so-called visible characteristics. Furthermore, once the organism is described as an electromagnetic entity, this strongly suggests the reason for the efficacy of the various electromagnetic therapies, namely as the most direct means of restoring the body’s impacted electromagnetic field to its normal state. ABRAHAM R. LIBOFF, Ph.D.
A Short History of Energy Medicine. An excellent introduction to the history of Energy Medicine and how it is starting to play a fundamental role in the delivery of 21st Century medicine. From Energy Psychology: Self-Healing Practices for Bodymind Health Energy Psychology by Michael Mayer published by North Atlantic Books, copyright © 2009 by Michael Mayer. Reprinted by permission of publisher.
Healing with Electromedicine and Sound Therapies. A very complete introduction to Electromedicine, including a description of the electromagnetic spectrum and how it manifests in and affects biological organisms, and a description of EM therapeutic methods and tools. - Nenah Sylver, PhD.
Physiological Effects of Qigong and Yoga/Pranayama. A description of the affects of Qigong on body oxygen levels, the lymph system, and nervous system - Dr. Roger Jahnke, OMD.
The Science Behind Taiji & Qigong: Why They Work. The physiological and energetic basis for Qigong's benefits - Jim Loretta.
An Analytic Review of Studies on Measuring Effects of External Qi in China. Scientists have long been interested in measuring external qi (EQ or wai qi) during qigong healing, and have produced a large body of literature over the past 20 years. This paper reviews the major research on measuring EQ in China and tries to help other researchers to get a picture on what has been done so as to eliminate the simple replication of already verified results. Starting with the historical background of EQ studies in China, this paper analytically reviews the major studies of EQ effects from five different categories of detectors: 1) physical signal detectors; 2) chemical dynamics methods; 3) detectors using biological materials; 4) detectors using life sensors; and 5) detectors using the human body. By Kevin Chen, Director of Research, Qigong Institute.
Qigong Institute Commentary on "Mind-Body and Relaxation Research Focus" collection by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. (www.novapublishers.com). Explores the fundamental problems with the current western medical model and proposes specific initiatives to research and promote Qigong as a primary health modality. The Qigong Institute.
In spite of the slowly increasing acceptance of energy medicine, there are many reasons why its adoption is not as quick as it should be. Much of the problem is the existing western medical paradigm that is focused on the use of drugs and technology to treat symptoms instead of being focused on prevention of illness and treating the true cause of illness holistically, taking into account the mind and the body. This view is changing as the healthcare train-wreck is slowly coming into focus. Many government agencies have been at the forefront of trying to change the existing paradigm. See the United States Government and Qigong for more information. Although the government realizes the benefits of prevention of illness, there are many interest groups that are threatened by new medical paradigms. See The Suppression of Energy Medicine and the lack of science behind modern medical practice (How Scientific is Modern Medicine Really?).
In November 2005, The Stanford School of Medicine hosted a dialogue between the Dalai Lama and neuroscientists from Stanford and other universities, as well as Buddhist scholars in a day long discussion of the nature of the phenomena of craving, suffering, and choice. Read a summary of this seminar on neuroscience with the Dalai Lama . Project Compassion at the Stanford School of Medicine's Center for Compassion & Altruism Research and Education is an innovative initiative within the Stanford Institute for Neuro-Innovation and Translational Neurosciences that will undertake a rigorous scientific study of the neural, mental and social bases of compassion and altruistic behavior that draws from a wide spectrum of disciplines including psychology, neuroscience, economics and contemplative traditions. The Dalai Lama also appeared in November 2005 in Washington DC at The Science and Clinical Applications of Meditation Conference.
An example of scientific collaboration between Buddhists and neuroscientists can be found in "Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice". Besides exhibiting gamma synchrony which is a component of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC), one of the main outcomes of this study is that meditation can create permanent changes in neural pathways.
Qigong forms involving movement, especially Tai Chi, have been strongly endorsed by numerous organizations including Harvard Medical School based upon years of research and practice (Wayne 2013) (Harvard 2019). A Veterans Administration review reported statistically significant effects for QT for hypertension, falls outside of institutions, cognitive performance, osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pain, balance confidence, depression, and muscle strength (Hempel et al., 2014). The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends QT in their Position Stand for neuromotor fitness: "Neuromotor exercise training, sometimes called functional fitness training, incorporates motor skills such as balance, coordination, gait, and agility, and proprioceptive training. Multifaceted physical activities such as tai ji (tai chi), qigong, and yoga involve varying combinations of neuromotor exercise, resistance exercise, and flexibility exercise. Neuromotor exercise training is beneficial as part of a comprehensive exercise program for older persons, especially to improve balance, agility, muscle strength, and reduce the risk of falls” (Garber et al., 2011). A 2019 systematic review found independent research evidence that was sufficient to support Tai Chi performed as Qigong as a primary intervention for balance training and fall prevention (Klein et al., 2019).
A compelling body of research has also shown the benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi done as Qigong for a very wide range of health challenges and chronic conditions including, but not limited to, bone health, cardiopulmonary fitness, physical function, falls risk and balance, general quality of life, immune function and inflammatory responses, management of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson’s disease, cardiac and cardiovascular disease, mortality and stroke, blood pressure, stress and disease, heart function and microcirculation, asthma, respiration, allergies, neuromuscular disorders, cancer, use of drugs, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy. (Oh et al., 2020)(Sancier, 1996) (Sancier, 1996 Mar) (Feng et al., 2020) (Jahnke et al., 2010) (Klein et al., 2019) (Rogers et al., 2009). Meditative movement practices have also been recommended as a way to learn mindfulness for those who struggle to sit still during the more commonly taught mindfulness practices (Russell et al., 2015). Other researchers argue for conceptualizing and promoting physical activity as Mindfulness-Based Movement (Lucas, Porges, et al., 2018).
Feng F, Tuchman S, Denninger JW, Fricchione GL, Yeung A. Qigong for the Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation of COVID-19 Infection in Older Adults [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 15]. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2020;10.1016/j.jagp.2020.05.012. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2020.05.012
Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334-1359. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb
Harvard Medical School. An Introduction to Tai Chi. 2019. Harvard Health Publishing
Hempel S, Taylor SL, Solloway MR, et al. Evidence Map of Tai Chi. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2014
Jahnke R, Larkey L, Rogers C, Etnier J, Lin F. A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. Am J Health Promot. 2010;24(6):e1-e25. doi:10.4278/ajhp.0810-LIT-248
Klein PJ, Baumgarden J, Schneider R. Qigong and Tai Chi as Therapeutic Exercise: Survey of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Addressing Physical Health Conditions. Altern Ther Health Med. 2019;25(5):48-53
Lucas AR, Klepin HD, Porges SW, Rejeski WJ. Mindfulness-Based Movement: A Polyvagal Perspective. Integr Cancer Ther. 2018;17(1):5-15. doi:10.1177/1534735416682087
Oh B, Bae K, Lamoury G, et al. The Effects of Tai Chi and Qigong on Immune Responses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicines (Basel). 2020;7(7):E39. Published 2020 Jun 30. doi:10.3390/medicines7070039
Rogers CE, Larkey LK, Keller C. A review of clinical trials of tai chi and qigong in older adults. West J Nurs Res. 2009;31(2):245-279. doi:10.1177/0193945908327529
Russell TA, Arcuri SM. A Neurophysiological and Neuropsychological Consideration of Mindful Movement: Clinical and Research Implications. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:282. Published 2015 May 26. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00282
Sancier KM. Medical applications of qigong. Altern Ther Health Med. 1996;2(1):40-46
Sancier K. Anti-Aging Benefits of Qigong. J. ISLIS. 1996 Mar. 14(1)
Wayne, P. 2013. The Harvard Medical School Guide to Tai Chi. Shambhala
Individual Stress Prevention through Qigong. The main objective of this paper is to offer a comprehensive, narrative review of the effects of Qigong and its core components. Attention is first paid to the outcomes of work and off-work demands and stress, and the role of recovery for individuals’ well-being. Then, Qigong and its components are explained, followed by the results of scientific research. Studies with RCTs have shown that practicing Qigong impacts the effects of stress and overactivation by decreasing stress levels, hypertension, depression, and anxiety, and improving the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, immune function, sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and stress appraisal. Four elements of Qigong appear to contribute to these positive effects, i.e., physical training, active relaxation, focused attention, and conscious breathing. [PMCID: PMC7579037].
Meditative Movement as a Category of Exercise: Implications for Research. Although thousands of years old, Qigong belongs to a new category of exercise called meditative movement. Tai Chi done for health is meditative movement and is equivalent to Qigong.
A Comprehensive Review of Health Benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi. Amer J. Health Promotion. Jul/Aug 2010.
Energy Medicine: The Scientific Basis. Comprehensive book on Energy Medicine by Dr. James Oschman.
Update on Qigong Practice and Qigong Research in the United States, Kevin W Chen, Ph.D. MPH Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Laboratory for Mind-Body Signaling & Energy Research at University of California, Irvine.
Meditation Practices for Health: State of Research, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This report was requested and funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Objective: To review and synthesize the state of research on a variety of meditation practices, including: the specific meditation practices examined; the research designs employed and the conditions and outcomes examined; the efficacy and effectiveness of different meditation practices for the three most studied conditions; the role of effect modifiers on outcomes; and the effects of meditation on physiological and neuropsychological outcomes.
EMF Portal. The EMF-Portal is a web-based information platform regarding the effects of electromagnetic fields on humans and on interaction with biological systems or body aids. It is provided for scientists, politicians, lawyers, physicians and interested citizens who want to be able make their own informed decisions. The site contains thousands of articles on the effects of electromagnetic fields on humans and on interaction with biological systems or body aids. Like the Qigong and Energy Medicine Database™, access is free.
Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine Journal Archive. The abstracts from these journals pertaining to Qigong and Energy Medicine research were added to the Qigong and Energy Medicine Database™ by Qigong Institute Founder Ken Sancier starting in 1990. Many other noteworthy articles have appeared here including Presidential addresses given at ISSSEEM Annual Conferences and research and presentations by leaders in the field including: Robert O. Becker, Daniel J. Benor, Larry Dossey, Konstantin Korotkov, Jeff Levin, Hiroshi Motoyama, Dean Radin, Elizabeth Rauscher, Norm Shealy, Charles Tart, William Tiller, John E. Upledger, B. Alan Wallace, and many more.
Tai Chi and Qigong can increase bioenergy (as indicated by Bioenergetic Markers) to a greater degree than ‘hard' Kung Fu styles, riding a stationary bicycle, or lifting weights. The bioenergy increase produced by Tai Chi practice can also be measured as an increase in physical strength. Tai Chi and Qigong practices can increase both blood flow and bioenergy markers, consistent with the Chinese concept of “blood is the mother of Qi”.
The following table lists the difference (increase) in bioenergy between mind-body and physcial exercise, as indicated by the bioenergetic marker:
Highlights from Dr. James Oschman's presentation at the Annual World Congress of Anti-Aging Medicine. Dr. Oschman believes that a new milestone in medicine is upon us, harnessing the diagnostic and therapeutic use of energy. This new technology which is entering mainstream medical use stimulates the repair and regeneration of tissues.
"Energy Medicine is the diagnostic and therapeutic use of energy"
Denying the 'direct electromagnetic interactions [among] living molecules would be to deny the fundamental reaction upon which all life depends, namely the absorption of sunlight by green plants.' James Oschman in Energy Medicine - The Scientific Basis
The bioenergetic basis of life is comprised of overlapping, interacting energy fields. Coherence (constructive interference) and entrainment are terms used to describe the interaction and synchronization of the fields.
Research by the Harvard Medical School and others has demonstrated that the practice of Qigong affects gene expression, and immune, nervous system, and cellular function. Qigong positively affects telomeres and telomerase, which allows cells to live longer -- true "anti-aging" and the legendary "fountain of youth". Oxidative stress, inflammation, and a lower dietary antioxidant capacity are associated with telomere attrition. Proper nutrition plus the mind and body practice of Qigong address this fundamental problem. Exercise alone lowers chronic inflammation. Qigong also changes which genes are expressed, thereby promoting gene transcription for stress reduction and improvement of immune function. The scientific basis of Qigong is explained in part through the convergence of epigenetics (cell biology) and psychoneuroimmunology ( neuroscience): Epigenetics, Psychoneuroimmunology, and Qigong.
The Shanghai Qigong Research Institute, founded on March 12, 1985, is affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. As the largest professional Qigong research institution acrossChina, it involves scientific research, education, medical treatment and cultural communication. The institute contains departments such as Comprehensive Medical Qigong Laboratory, Qigong Teaching & Research Office, Qigong Document Information Office, Qigong Health Culture Center and Qigong History Museum.
The past decades witnessed the fruitfull achievements of the Institute in basic study, clinical observation and cultural communication. In addition, the Institute has undertaken qigong-related scientific research projects and cross-sectional studies funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, General Administration of Sport of China, Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission , Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau . By hosting the annual International Symposium on Qigong Science, the institute plays a significant role in popularizing Qigong and further developing the excellent traditional culture.
The Qigong Institute's Qigong and Energy Medicine Database™ contains abstracts of scientfic research on Qigong, Tai Chi, and Energy Medicine which have been collected since 1984. This database is the first and only online repository for early scientific research on Qigong from China.
This is a short, very practical introduction to the physiology of Qigong and qi.
Dao Yin is a form of exercise combining physical movements, mental focus, and breathing originated in ancient China. In this review, we introduce the history in the development and the scope of Dao Yin, the relationship between Dao Yin with Taoist culture and Qigong, and the potential mechanisms of how Dao Yin promotes health and alleviate illnesses. Empirical research studies using Dao Yin for treatment of lumbar spondylosis, peripheral musculoskeletal diseases, cervical spondylosis, heart diseases, central nervous system disorders, immunological dysfunction, and psychological disorders are detailed. This paper gives an excellent introduction to the neuropsychological, immunilogical, therapeutic, and musculoskeletal effects of Qigong practice. [PubMed].
Qigong is a mind-body discipline. As a result of the effectiveness of Qigong and other energy-based therapies (e.g. see D. Benor, M.D.'s Energy Medicine for the Internist), western medicine and scientists are beginning to realize that a person's state of mind can affect their health. This should come as no surprise since according to the Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2020 report, seventy percent of diseases can be prevented, and other research shows that seventy to ninety percent of illness is due to stress.
Up until recently, placebos and "psychosomatic" illnesses were dismissed as byproducts of "legitimate" therapies, usually involving drugs, or made up problems that had no real physical basis or effect upon a person's health. Not anymore. It's been proven without a doubt that mental state can and does affect your health. Candace Pert's ground-breaking Molecules Of Emotion: The Science Behind Mind-Body Medicine describes the genesis of an entirely new discipline in the field of neuroscience and medical biology: Psychoneuroimmunology, the interaction of the mind, body, emotions, and the immune system via the body's own internal chemical signaling system. Understanding the combination of the protein-receptor cellular level communication mechanism (the endocrine system) and psychoneuroimmunology is the goal of psychoneuroimmunoendocrinology. Endocrinology is the study of the protein-based chemical communcation system that controls the body's physiological processes. These processes are set in motion by a feedback system based upon energy where environmental signals affect molecular activity in the body. There is increasing evidence of the efficacy of mind-body therapies for common clinical conditions: Mind-Body Medicine: State of the Science, Implications for Practice.
More information on the documented effects of thoughts and emotions on health: Epigenetics, Psychoneuroimmunology, and Qigong.
Placebos have been embraced as a legitimate field of study by neuroscientists -- see Pain and the Placebo. It is encouraging that more researchers in biomedicine, biophysics, neuroscience, and complementary fields are turning their attention to Energy Medicine research and the scientific basis for Qigong's profound integrated mind-body medicine and stress reduction effectiveness.
This is an interview with Mind Body Week speaker Ted Cibik, Ph.D., ND, DMQ (China), a visionary, speaker, healer and author has been passionate about Chinese medicine, meditation, and healing since childhood. A survivor of incurable asthma and cancer, he has dedicated his life to healing himself and others. Dr. Cibik discusses the incorporation of mind-body medicine into western medical practice.
A Short History of Energy Medicine (.PDF ). Modern science has demonstrated that electromagnetic fields of the body are generated during various biological processes, including rapid cell division; during natural growth processes, such as growth of bone cells; as well as following fracture, intense nervous activity associated with mental processes, and various pathological conditions, such as abnormal cell growth with diseases like cancer. The distinction between conservative medical practitioners and the new proponents of energy medicine is summed up well by one of the early researchers in the field, Dr. Glen Rein (1992), who wrote: "It is now well known that the human body emits a broad spectrum of electromagnetic and acoustic radiation. Traditional medicine looks at these as by-products of biochemical reactions in the body. They are not considered by most biomedical researchers to be involved with the basic functioning (or healing) of the body. The basic tenet of energy medicine is that these fields are not only involved with functioning of the physical/chemical body but regulate these processes. (From Energy Psychology by Michael Mayer published by North Atlantic Books, copyright © 2009 by Michael Mayer. Reprinted by permission of publisher).
For more in-depth information on the incorporation of Qigong and related Energy Medicine therapies in clinical psychology, see Energy Psychology: Self-Healing Practices for Bodymind Health by Dr. Mayer.
Also see Energy Psychology.
A Bridge of Light: Toward Chinese and Western Medicine Perspectives Through Ultraweak Photon Emissions. The paper discusses (1) the ultraweek photon emission in relation to Qi energy, meridians and acupuncture points in Chinese Medicine, (2) the biochemical explanation of photon emission of living systems in Western biomedicine, and (3) the progress in research on the large-scale organization and dynamics of the metabolic network including photon metabolism. Glob Adv Health Med. 2019; 8.
"Every molecule, cell, living body, and object is comprised of energy that manifests as physical matter. Some of that energy is detectible as frequencies that belong to one or more radiation bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. And these frequencies correspond to biochemical and biological processes in the body." Nenah Sylver, PhD.
Healing with Electromedicine and Sound Therapies. An overview of Electromedicine, the science behind electromagnetic frequencies used for therapy and healing, and specific EM therapeutic methods and tools.
For even more comprehensive information on energy-based technologies, devices, and their use for therapy, complementary therapies and how to use them, and holistic health, see
Dr. Shin Lin, Ph.D. Director of the Laboratory of Mind-Body Energy & Signaling Research and Professor in the Departments of Cell Biology and Biomedical Engineering at UC Irvine. Measurements were carried out with Electromyography, EEG, Photon Migration Spectroscopy, Laser Doppler Flometry, and Gas Discharge Visualization.
For more information see Publications on the Laboratory for Mind-Body Signaling & Energy Research website.
Dr. Peter Wayne, Ph.D. Director of Research for the Osher Center for Integrative Medicine and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital.
Dr. Ju Lin, Ph.D. Research Biochemist in the Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics at UC San Francisco and Co-Founder and Research Director of Telome Health Inc.
Dr. John Longhurst, M.D. Ph.D. Director of the Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine and Professor in the Departments of Medicine, Physiology & Biophysics and Pharmacology at UC Irvine.