The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, version 2 (MAIA-2): psychometric properties in a Dutch non-clinical sample

Author: Mia Scheffers1, Jaisey Coenen2, Janet Moeijes2, Albertine de Haan2, Jooske van Busschbach2, Tina Bellemans2
1 Department of Human Movement and Education, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, the Netherlands.
2 Department of Human Movement and Education, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, the Netherlands.
Conference/Journal: BMC Psychol
Date published: 2024 Jan 29
Other: Volume ID: 12 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: 53 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1186/s40359-024-01553-8. , Word Count: 221

Interoceptive awareness is a multidimensional construct that refers to the sensation, interpretation, and integration of signals within the body. There is increasing evidence that problems with interoceptive awareness form an important component of mental health problems. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness 2 (MAIA-2) is presently the most used self-report questionnaire to measure interoceptive awareness. The aim of the present study is to psychometrically evaluate the Dutch version of the MAIA-2.

The psychometric properties of the MAIA-2-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 1054 participants aged between 18 and 83. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were investigated. Factor structure was examined by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Internal consistency was good, with McDonald's omega (ω) ranging from 0.67 to 0.89. Test-retest reliability was moderate to good, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranging from 0.67 to 0.79. Factor analyses suggested a six-factor structure, combining the original subscales Noticing with Emotional awareness and Self-regulation with Body listening. However, a CFA based on the original eight factors showed a somewhat better fit than the CFA based on six factors.

The MAIA-2-NL is a reliable and valid instrument to measure interoceptive awareness in healthy Dutch adults. We recommend to maintain the original 37 items.

Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis; Dutch version; Exploratory factor analysis; Interoceptive awareness; Psychometric properties.

PMID: 38287385 DOI: 10.1186/s40359-024-01553-8