The Impact of Different Modes of Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density in Older Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Research.

Author: Mohammad Rahimi GR1,2, Smart NA3, Liang MTC4, Bijeh N5, Albanaqi AL3,6, Fathi M1, Niyazi A7, Mohammad Rahimi N8
1Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2Department of Sport Sciences, Vahdat Institute of Higher Education, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran.
3School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
4Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA.
5Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
6Turaif General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Turaif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
7Department of Exercise Physiology, Sanabad Golbahar Institute of Higher Education, Golbahar, Iran.
8Department of Sport Sciences, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran.
Conference/Journal: Calcif Tissue Int.
Date published: 2020 Feb 13
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1007/s00223-020-00671-w. [Epub ahead of print] , Word Count: 248

Effectiveness of exercise on bone mass is closely related to the mode of exercise training regimen, as well as the study design. This study aimed to determine the effect of different modes of exercise training on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in older postmenopausal women (PMW). PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases and reference lists of included studies were searched up until March 25, 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of various modes of exercise training in PMW. Sixteen RCTs with 1624 subjects were included. Our study found no significant change in both lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD following exercise training (MD: 0.01 g/cm2; 95% confidence interval (CI) [- 0.01, 0.02] and MD: 0.00 g/cm2; 95% CI [- 0.01, 0.01], respectively). However, subgroup analysis by type of exercise training revealed that lumbar spine BMD (MD: 0.01; 95% CI [0.00, 0.02]) raised significantly when whole-body vibration (WBV) was employed as intervention compared with RCTs that utilized aerobic (MD: - 0.01; 95% CI [- 0.02, - 0.01]), resistance (MD: 0.01; 95% CI [- 0.04, 0.06]), and combined training (MD: 0.03; 95% CI [- 0.01, 0.08]). On the other hand, lumbar spine BMD (MD: - 0.01; 95% CI [- 0.02, - 0.01]) reduced significantly when aerobic exercise training was used as intervention compared with RCTs that utilized resistance training, combined training, and WBV. By contrast, these analyses did not have significant effect on change in femoral neck BMD. WBV is an effective method to improve lumbar spine BMD in older PMW.

KEYWORDS: Bone mineral density; Exercise training; Meta-analysis; Postmenopausal women; Randomized controlled trials

PMID: 32055889 DOI: 10.1007/s00223-020-00671-w