Yoga practice in the UK: a cross-sectional survey of motivation, health benefits and behaviours.

Author: Cartwright T1, Mason H2, Porter A3, Pilkington K3,4
1School of Social Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK
2The Minded Institute, Arlington House, London, UK.
3School of Social Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK.
4School of Health and Care Professions, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
Conference/Journal: BMJ Open.
Date published: 2020 Jan 12
Other: Volume ID: 10 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: e031848 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031848. , Word Count: 324

OBJECTIVES: Despite the popularity of yoga and evidence of its positive effects on physical and mental health, little is known about yoga practice in the UK. This study investigated the characteristics of people who practise yoga, reasons for initiating and maintaining practice, and perceived impact of yoga on health and well-being.

DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional online anonymous survey distributed through UK-based yoga organisations, studios and events, through email invites and flyers. 2434 yoga practitioners completed the survey, including 903 yoga teachers: 87% were women, 91% white and 71% degree educated; mean age was 48.7 years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perceived impact of yoga on health conditions, health outcomes and injuries. Relationships between yoga practice and measures of health, lifestyle, stress and well-being.

RESULTS: In comparison with national population norms, participants reported significantly higher well-being but also higher anxiety; lower perceived stress, body mass index and incidence of obesity, and higher rates of positive health behaviours. 47% reported changing their motivations to practise yoga, with general wellness and fitness key to initial uptake, and stress management and spirituality important to current practice. 16% of participants reported starting yoga to manage a physical or mental health condition. Respondents reported the value of yoga for a wide range of health conditions, most notably for musculoskeletal and mental health conditions. 20.7% reported at least one yoga-related injury over their lifetime. Controlling for demographic factors, frequency of yoga practice accounted for small but significant variance in health-related regression models (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: The findings of this first detailed UK survey were consistent with surveys in other Western countries. Yoga was perceived to have a positive impact on physical and mental health conditions and was linked to positive health behaviours. Further investigation of yoga's role in self-care could inform health-related challenges faced by many countries.

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

KEYWORDS: mental health; preventive medicine; public health; yoga

PMID: 31932388 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031848