Tai Chi is part of a new category of exercise called moving meditation.
Health Benefits of tai chi. CFP MFC -- The official journal of the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
"Tai Chi" and "Tai Chi Chuan" are deprecated terms (see wade-giles) for the newer "Taiji" (pronounced "tie gee" where "gee" is pronounced as in "gee whiz") which is supported by the Chinese government (see pinyin). The term 'Tai Chi' is more familiar to most people since it's been in use longer, and is often used as a recognizable marketing term. Sometimes 'Tai Chi Chuan' is used to denote taiji practiced as a martial art (taijiquan) whereas 'Tai Chi' may just refer to Tai Chi done for health reasons. However, Tai Chi may also refer to taiji practiced as a martial art. So there is no hard and fast rule. The important thing to note is that the all terms are used pretty much interchangeably to refer to the same thing (mostly, the practice of taiji for health).
Some form of Tai Chi practice is highly recommended for everyone's exercise program, regardless of age, and it is becoming extremely popular with active adults and seniors. Tai Chi is a more complex moving form of Qigong that can be done as a martial art or for health. Today, most people practice Tai Chi for health maintenance and improvement or for mitigating the effects of chronic conditions such as arthritis and normal aging. Traditional forms of Tai Chi can take years to learn, but the health benefits of Tai Chi are much more easily accessible with simplified or shortened forms.
Live a Healthier Life with Tai Chi - a webpage filled with links to interesting articles on Tai Chi, including history, physical health, emotional wellbeing, and how to get started.
Time magazine has called Tai Chi "The Perfect Exercise". T'ai Chi Magazine (for Tai Chi practiced as a martial art) discusses the myriad health benefits of Tai Chi in its August 2006 issue. Newsweek's September 27, 2004 issue reports on the increasing use of Qigong in hospitals and cancer centers across the country. Lorenzo Cohen, head of integrative medicine at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, predicts that mind-body techniques will soon become as much a part of standard cancer care as chemotherapy or radiation.
Taiji and balance/fall prevention. Balance and fall prevention are among the most studied outcomes of taiji research, and most review papers conclude that there is significant evidence that taiji can improve balance and reduce the risk of falls. However, the potential maximum benefit of taiji practice remains significantly underestimated and misunderstood by researchers and the general public. The reason is curriculum: still today most researchers (and the general public) equate taiji practice with slow choreographed movement only. Taiji is much more than this.
This Ancient Martial Art Can Fight Disease, Calm The Mind And Slow Aging. Americans have no difficulty adopting ancient practices into their health regimens. Take yoga, the ancient mind-body practice and contemporary fitness craze (and $27 billion industry), which continues its prominence in the mainstream -- even after decades of increasing popularity. Many forms of meditation, likewise, have been touted for stress-relieving, health-promoting benefits by prominent leaders in business, media and the arts. And then there's tai chi.
Dr. Paul Lam, a practicing physician and Tai Chi master for more than 30 years, provides an overview of the ancient art of Tai Chi, and discusses the scientific evidence for its health benefits. University of California Television (UCTV).
There are two main types of Tai Chi (also spelled "T'ai Chi" or "Taiji" and also referred to as "Tai Chi Chuan" or "Taijiquan"): Lineage-based (traditional) and Simplified. The two types are not mutually exclusive because lineage-based Tai Chi masters are now creating shorter forms to make Tai Chi accessible to more people.
The first type of Tai Chi, is traditional, or "lineage-based", such as Chen style, Yang style, and Wu style. Traditional Tai Chi is learned from masters and is handed down as an oral tradition from generation to generation. Qigong also has some lineage forms, such as Wild Goose. Generally, a Tai Chi form done for martial arts and not health has the "Chuan" on the end of it. Otherwise, it's often just called Tai Chi (or the newer "Taiji" -- see an overview of Chinese character translation ), although the terms are often interchangeable. Note that Tai Chi magazine is called "T'ai Chi" magazine. Then in much smaller print below that, it's "The International Magazine of T'ai Chi Ch'uan". "Tai Chi" is the "marketing" term that you see in the popular press because it's the most well-known.
The second main type of Tai Chi consists of simplified versions of Tai Chi. Some of the newer non-lineage Tai Chi forms are Tai Chi Easy™, Beijing 24 Form, Tai Chi Chih, and Tai Chi for Arthritis. These shorter forms are based on the traditional forms, but are easier to learn, especially for older adults. They are often called "Simplified Tai Chi". This just means that these newer forms do not have as many movements in them as the longer and more complex lineage-based forms, but the fundamental principles of the two practices are identical because all Tai Chi rests on a foundation of Qigong.
The term "form" can be a little confusing: It can refer to both individual movements (e.g. hand movements, a foot movement, a combined hand and foot movement, or several combined hand/foot movements, turning at the waist, raising and lowering arms...) as well as a complete set of movements (e.g. Chen style 48 Form). People get excited by the popular media and want to "do Tai Chi". It looks cool and old people do it, so it must be good for you. They have no idea of what they are getting into when they sign up for their first Tai Chi class and don't know the difference between lineage and non-lineage forms. This distinction usually doesn't matter until the person has been practicing a while and wants to understand the practice at a deeper level.
Regardless of whether a form is lineage or non-lineage, it is derived from a number of individual movements and conforms to the fundamentals of Tai Chi, such as ground connection and knee alignment. Furthermore, the strength, flexibility, confidence, stress reduction, etc. benefits (proven via medical research - see the Qigong and Energy Medicine Database™ for specific research abstracts) are the same. The main difference is the amount of time it takes to learn the form and how the form is taught. It can take years to learn a traditional form as opposed to one session, a few weeks, or just a few months to learn enough Tai Chi to be beneficial from a health standpoint. This is especially noteworthy for seniors.
The benefits of Tai Chi are more readily available with the easier forms because people can learn them faster and are less willing to give up in the face of a long-term commitment to learning a full form. So for many people, doing a simpler form is the right answer for their health. For others, starting with the easier forms and moving to the lineage forms when comfortable is the best solution. Still others will immediately fall in love with doing the longer lineage forms. Note too, that some "easier" forms such as the new Beijing 24 Form are getting to be as long as some of the shorter traditional forms. Regardless of which type of Tai Chi you practice and enjoy, the health benefits are enormous and well documented.
The Beijing 24 Form (video:7:16 ) is the non-lineage version of Tai Chi that has been standardized by the Chinese government and is taught in schools. For more information on Tai Chi visit World Tai Chi and Qigong Day.
Watch a truly amazing demonstration of Tai Chi by thousands of people.
Easy to learn and practice versions of Tai Chi are being created to meet the recommendations of the National Expert Meeting. These forms of Tai Chi can be done sitting, standing, or walking, and movements may be done individually or in combinations. For an example approach to simplified Tai Chi visit the Healer Within Foundation website and its Tai Chi Easy™ program.
"When I began teaching students the simplified movements similar to those used in our clinical protocols...I saw quicker results and students kept coming to class. Among students who studied for only a few months and did not learn the formal Tai Chi choreography, I observed improved balance, strength, and greater sense of well-being." Dr. Peter Wayne. The Harvard Medical School Guide to Tai Chi.
Meditation in Qigong practice consists of quieting the mind through mindfulness, thus enabling an enhanced interoception, proprioception, the vestibular system, and awareness of present moment experience.
Interoception, a key component of Qigong practice, is a representation of the body's internal state based on proprioception, the senses, and biofeedback pathways which include bi-directional communication between the limbic system (thoughts and emotions), the frontal cortex, the neuroendocrine system, and the autonomic nervous system. Proprioception is the body's ability to sense movement, including alignment (posture, orientation, and balance), and includes awareness of your body position in space as well as the relationship between muscles and structure.
Neural Basis of Touch and Proprioception in Primate Cortex. The sense of proprioception allows us to keep track of our limb posture and movements and the sense of touch provides us with information about objects with which we come into contact. In both senses, mechanoreceptors convert the deformation of tissues-skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or joints-into neural signals. Tactile and proprioceptive signals are then relayed by the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system, where they are processed to give rise to percepts of objects and of the state of our body.
Neuronal stretch reception - making sense of the mechanosense. The sensation of mechanical force underlies many of our daily activities. As the sense of touch determines the quality of life, the subconscious sense of proprioception and visceral mechanosensation is indispensible for survival.
Emotions can alter kinesthetic acuity. Kinesthesia, the perception of our own body movements, relies on the integration of proprioceptive information arising mostly from muscle spindles, which are sensory receptors in skeletal muscles. This research shows that emotion can shape the perception of movements.
The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness Version (MAIA). Qigong and Tai Chi practice increase interoceptive awareness which in turn contributes to enhanced health and wellness. This paper gives an excellent background on the processes of interoception which include awareness of body sensations, emotional reaction and attentional response to sensations, capacity to regulate attention, trusting body sensations and beliefs about importance of sensations, and mind-body integration. Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness Version 2 (MAIA-2) (2018).
The neurobiology of interoception in health and disease. Interoception is the sensing of internal bodily sensations. Interoception is an umbrella term that encompasses (1) the afferent (body-to-brain) signaling through distinct neural and humoral (including immune and endocrine) channels; (2) the neural encoding, representation, and integration of this information concerning internal bodily state; (3) the influence of such information on other perceptions, cognitions, and behaviors; (4) and the psychological expression of these representations as consciously accessible physical sensations and feelings. Interoceptive mechanisms ensure physiological health through the cerebral coordination of homeostatic reflexes and allostatic responses that include motivational behaviors and associated affective and emotional feelings.
Interoceptive Awareness Skills for Emotion Regulation: Theory and Approach of Mindful Awareness in Body-Oriented Therapy (MABT). Emotion regulation involves a coherent relationship with the self, specifically effective communication between body, mind, and feelings. Effective emotion regulation involves the ability to accurately detect and evaluate cues related to physiological reactions to stressful events, accompanied by appropriate regulation strategies that temper and influence the emotional response. There is compelling evidence demonstrating links between poor or disrupted awareness of sensory information, or interoceptive awareness, and difficulties with emotion regulation. This paper presents a framework, based on psychological and neurobiological research, for understanding how interoceptive awareness facilitates regulation and an integrated sense of self, and thus contributes to health and well-being.
Improvement of Interoceptive Processes after an 8-Week Body Scan Intervention. Interoception can be improved by long-term interventions such as Qigong which focus on bodily signals.
Interoception and Mental Health: A Roadmap. Interoception refers to the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, providing a moment-by-moment mapping of the body's internal landscape across conscious and unconscious levels. Interoceptive signaling has been considered a component process of reflexes, urges, feelings, drives, adaptive responses, and cognitive and emotional experiences, highlighting its contributions to the maintenance of homeostatic functioning, body regulation, and survival. Dysfunction of interoception is increasingly recognized as an important component of different mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, addictive disorders, and somatic symptom disorders. Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest on the topic of interoception due in part to findings highlighting its integral role in emotional experience, self-regulation, decision making, and consciousness.
Interoceptive signals impact visual processing: Cardiac modulation of visual body perception. Part of the "gong" of Qigong is becoming more attuned over time to what your body is telling you in real-time. Interoception is a skill developed through Qigong practice. As this research shows, there's a lot more involved in our perception of our environment than we realize, and interoception is a major contributor to that perception.
Mindfulness training induces structural connectome changes in insula networks. Mindfulness stregthens interoception. Both mindfulness and interoception are fundamental to the practice of Qigong and Tai Chi.
Increasing Our Insular World View: Interoception and Psychopathology for Psychotherapists. Interoception has been determined to be an elemental aspect of the neural foundations of physiological homeostasis, subjective experience, and motivated behavior. This paper reviews current neuroscience research regarding interoception and forms of interoceptive dysfunction that may result in psychopathology, focusing on depression, and anxiety, in a manner conducive to psychotherapists engaging with it to consider clinical applications.
Breathing as a Fundamental Rhythm of Brain Function. Ongoing cortical activity is driven by proprioceptive and interoceptive inputs. In addition, it is partially intrinsically generated in which case it may be related to mental processes. Here we argue that respiration, via multiple sensory pathways, contributes a rhythmic component to the ongoing cortical activity. We suggest that this rhythmic activity modulates the temporal organization of cortical neurodynamics, thereby linking higher cortical functions to the process of breathing.
The brain's GPS: The neural correlates of proprioception. Proprioception is having a sense of where you are, or your body position in space. This ability is critical, especially to older adults who are susceptible to developing a fear of falling as they age due to their diminished mental capacity to navigate in space. Tai Chi is a proprioception exercise. In other words, it is a coordination exercise that directly affects sensorimotor control of balance, neuromuscular function, and postural stability. This article reports on exciting basic neurological research that has revealed some of the mystery of how the brain implements proprioception.
Proprioception and Kinesthetic Sense. Taiji is a great exercise to improve proprioception and kinesthetic sense. During movement of any kind, we are constantly losing our balance and regaining it quickly. The better our ability to regain balance, the safer and more skillful our movement. Better balance makes athletes less likely to be injured and reduces falls among the elderly. Balance is improved by improving your proprioception and kinesthetic sense.
The vestibular system: a spatial reference for bodily self-consciousness. Proprioception and interoception fans should enjoy this research finding. In Qigong and Tai Chi practice we're always adjusting our posture. One such adjustment is having the head "dangling from a string" to have it centered, upright, etc. to improve structure and energy flow. This research provides a very interesting view of why this adjustment is so important and has such an impact upon our energy, practice, and consciousness.
Physiology, Vestibular System. The vestibular system is a complex set of structures and neural pathways that serves a wide variety of functions that contribute to our sense of proprioception and equilibrium. These functions include the sensation of orientation and acceleration of the head in any direction with associated compensation in eye movement and posture. The vestibular system also plays a role in consciousness, and dysfunctions of the system can cause cognitive deficits related to spatial memory, learning, and navigation. Qigong and Tai Chi practice help develop our sense of proprioception, and this research gives more insight into that process.
NCCIH-funded Study Provides New Information on Mechanisms Involved in Touch Sensation and Self-Perception of Body in Space. The ability to sense force, which is known as mechanosensation, provides humans and other animals with important information about the environment, and it is a fundamental component of the practice of Tai Chi. Proprioception is considered to be essential for posture and controlled movement.
Interoception, Contemplative Practice, and Health. Well-being is deeply rooted in the body, a continuous flow of feelings denoting comfort or distress. Interoception, the representation of the body's internal state, is a growing target of scientific research, buoyed by a growing respect for contemplative traditions relating interoceptive awareness to the cultivation of well-being. An emerging interoception literature cuts across studies of neurophysiology, somatic anthropology, contemplative practice, and mind-body medicine.
Spinal FMRI of interoceptive attention/awareness in experts and novices. Interoception is the sense of the physiological condition of the body derived from sensitivity to stimuli arising from within the body and external to it. In other words, interoceptive attention/awareness (IAA) depends upon the evaluation of sensory input. Interoception is fundamental to Qigong practice. These research results showed that neural activity in the spine increased in experts when they practiced IAA and that this increase was significantly larger for experts versus novices in each of the sessions. The significant effects of IAA and expertise on spinal neural activity are consistent with and elaborate on previous reports showing similar effects on cerebral neural activity. As the spinal cord directly innervates body parts, IAA has an instantaneous and beneficial effect on the physical body after extended training. This research confirms how some main benefits of Qigong practice are derived, especially due to the fact that the IAA in this research was combined with constant deep breathing.
Dissociation between the cognitive and interoceptive components of mindfulness in the treatment of chronic worry. The combination of mindfulness and interoception through the practice of qigong are very powerful.
Cost-effectiveness of a therapeutic Tai Ji Quan fall prevention intervention for older adults at high risk of falling. Among community-dwelling older adults at high risk for falls, Tai Chi is a more cost-effective means of reducing falls compared to conventional exercise approaches.
Studies show tai chi has physical benefits for cancer patients, including improving balance and stamina, and through those deep, cleansing breaths. More.
Tai chi is a workout that incorporates breathing and movement; and seniors say it's helping them with balance at home. More.
World T'ai Chi & Qigong Day was started in the late 1990's by Bill Douglas, author of The Complete Idiot's Guide to T'ai Chi & QiGong Illustrated, Fourth Edition, and his wife Angela Wong as a way to introduce people to the profound healing and health maintenance benefits of Tai Chi (a moving form of Qigong) and Qigong. The event has grown into a worldwide phenomena, practiced in over sixty countries. It starts at 10 AM in the earliest time zone the last Saturday every April, and flows as a gentle wave across the entire planet. More.
Silk Reeling exercises are a set of repetitive movements practiced mainly from a standing position. The movements have a spiraling character, with their corkscrew motion centered in the lower abdomen or lower dantian. Silk Reeling practice seeks to integrate physical strengthening, body awareness and coordination, the grounding of energy, abdominal breathing, and relaxation. The Silk Reeling exercises serve as a vehicle for meditative mindfulness and for the development of internal energy and power. Spiral movements are a fundamental component and outcome of the practice of all forms (Chen, Sun, Yang, Simplified, ...) of Tai Chi.
Silk Reeling DVDs
|Yang Yang's Silk Reeling Demonstration-1||Yang Yang's Silk Reeling Demonstration-2|
Dr. Roger Jahnke, OMD and Founder of The Institute of Integral Qigong & Tai Chi explains the meaning and origins of Tai Chi, Qigong, and Kung Fu.
An evidence map of the effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes. The evidence map is based on a systematic review of systematic reviews. We searched 11 electronic databases from inception to February 2014, screened reviews of reviews, and consulted with topic experts. We used a bubble plot to graphically display clinical topics, literature size, number of reviews, and a broad estimate of effectiveness.
There have been some excellent publications on the health benefits of Tai Chi in the medical/research press, such as in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. Some of the well researched benefits of Tai Chi include increased postural control and balance, flexibility, strength, confidence in mobility and coordination, sensitivity and awareness, quality of sleep, and reduction in stress. Dr. Yang Yang at University of Illinois Kinesiology Department has published a very compelling book on the medical benefits of Tai Chi. Tai Chi has been shown to increase balance control with resulting self-confidence and reduction in falls, especially among the elderly. Studies show it is effective for arthritis and pain, osteoporosis, strength and flexibility. Cardiovascular functioning is also improved. Research has found Tai Chi to be equivalent to moderate aerobic exercise. Tai Chi reduces cholesterol and blood pressure, and increases the capacity of the immune system. The American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation reported a study showing that Tai Chi is safe for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Harvard Medical School is an especially strong advocate of Tai Chi and Qigong.
Tai Chi Is a Promising Exercise Option for Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Declining Cardiac Rehabilitation. Journal of the American Heart Association.
Tai Chi holds promise as cardiac rehab exercise. Journal of the American Heart Association Report. The slow and gentle movements of Tai Chi hold promise as an alternative exercise option for patients who decline traditional cardiac rehabilitation, according to preliminary research in Journal of the American Heart Association, the Open Access Journal of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.
Tai Chi Practice Changes Fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations in Intrinsic Control Networks. Tai Chi practice enhances the brain's cognitive control capacity. Cognitive control impairment is a typical symptom largely reported in populations with neurological disorders. Based on the evidence from neuroimaging, a wide variety of mental disorders involve impaired cognitive control abilities and altered function in control system. Effective control systems protect against a variety of mental diseases. The authors conclude that Tai Chi practice enhances the brain's cognitive control capacity.
Yang G-Y, Wang L-Q, Ren J, et al. (2015) Evidence Base of Clinical Studies on Tai Chi: A Bibliometric Analysis. Scherer RW, ed. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):e0120655. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120655. Free PMC Article
CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Tai Chi Research and Therapy
Current Tai Chi Research. taichieasy.org. Whether you want to improve your balance, increase your flexibility, relieve pain, recover from injuries or diminish the effects of daily stress, the practice of Tai Chi is suitable for both men and women and for people of all ages, even those in their eighties and nineties.
World Tai Chi and Qigong Day website - Medical Research on Tai Chi & Qigong. This page has an easy to use alphabetically-ordered drop-down menu of health issues. Each issue has a synopsis on how it is affected through Tai Chi and Qigong practice.
The National Institutes of Health background information on Tai Chi includes links for research, images and video, and ongoing medical studies.
Tai Chi Exercise May Reduce Falls in Adult Stroke Survivors. An American Heart Association report on research presented to the American Stroke Association's International Stroke Conference 2013 stated that Tai Chi was more effective in fall prevention for stroke survivors than a control group using only the U.S. Medicare covered SilverSneakers Program. THIS IS A HUGE FINDING. It is becoming increasingly apparent that Tai Chi and Qigong could save national healthcare systems hundreds of billions, if not trillions in avoided future health expenditures.
For information on current U.S. Department of Health and Human Services clinical trials research, go to ClinicalTrials.gov and search for 'Qigong', 'Tai Chi', 'Acupuncture', etc.
Psychological effects of Tai Chi Chuan. This article reviews the scientific studies which have been carried out at the international level on the psychological benefits that Tai Chi Chuan brings to those who practice it. All of the larger more inclusive [research] summaries confirmed the potential for Taiji to produce significant improvements in emotional wellbeing with regard to depression and other mood disorders, as well as stress, anxiety, and fear of falling. These studies also found that Taiji supported a general sense of well-being and self-efficacy, the feeling that one is capable of facing what lies ahead in life.
Dr. Yang Yang founded The Center for Taiji Studies in 1996 and created the Evidence-Based Traditional Taiji (EBT™) Program. The term "Evidence-Based" indicates that the curriculum has been proven effective in Randomized Controlled Trials - the gold standard of scientific design. It is a key term for acceptance as an intervention by the medical community.
Selected Research on the benefits of Tai Chi - A Martial Art and moving form of Qigong From: Taijiquan - The Art of Nurturing, The Science of Power. Yang Yang. Zhenwu Publications. Champaign, Illinois. 2005. Contact: email@example.com.
There is both a wealth of information and a large number of randomized controlled trials that have proven the benefits of Tai Chi as a treatment for a number of conditions. This page lists some of the benefits. More information can be found on the Harvard Medical School Endorses Qigong and Tai Chi page and in the Qigong and Energy Medicine Database™ (search: Tai Chi).
Achy knees? Tai chi may work as well as — or better than — physical therapy (Washington Post). For patients with painful knee osteoarthritis, tai chi was as helpful as physical therapy in reducing pain and improving physical functioning, according to a new study partially funded by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. The results of the study, conducted at Tufts Medical Center in Boston, were published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine. Study Shows Tai Chi and Physical Therapy Were Equally Helpful for Knee Osteoarthritis (NCCIH).
Mechanism of Pain Relief through Tai Chi and Qigong. The purpose of this paper is to outline the academic and medical evidence for Tai Chi and Qigong impact on pain, and describe the hypothesized mechanism that enables Tai chi and Qigong to work so well at relieving pain - often better than opioid pain medication, and with fewer side effects. This paper also describes a paradigm for research which will increase the likelihood that researchers doing projects in this field can synergize their efforts and start building a foundational body of knowledge rather than continue to do independent and disconnected studies on the phenomenon that enables Tai Chi and Qigong to work.
New England Journal of Medicine article on Tai Chi for Parkinson's chosen Top 10 story of 2012 by Journal Watch Neurology. Willamette University exercise science professor Peter Harmer’s publication in The New England Journal of Medicine is a Top 10 story of 2012 by Journal Watch Neurology. Harmer’s study, "Tai Chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease," was also recognized by the American Academy of Neurology as the most important advance in movement disorders research for 2012.
Tai Chi relieves arthritis pain, improves reach, balance, well-being. Researchers at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine have found that patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia felt better and moved more easily after taking twice-weekly classes in Tai Chi. Practicing Tai Chi "reduced pain, stiffness and fatigue, and improved their balance."
Evidence for determining the exercise prescription in patients with osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease that affects more than one-third of older adults (age > 65 years), most often involving the hip and knee. Osteoarthritis causes pain and limits mobility, thereby reducing patient quality of life. Conservative, nonsurgical, nonpharmacologic treatment strategies includeweight reduction, orthotics, physical therapy modalities, acupuncture, massage, and exercise. The breadth of the current literature on OA can make determining the appropriate exercise prescription challenging. Aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, Tai chi, and aquatic exercise can all alleviate pain and improve function in patients with OA.
Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, congestive heart failure (HF), and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD.
Tai Chi more effective than yoga? After years of being exalted as an exotic form of martial arts, Tai Chi is now seen by the medical world as an answer to most physical grievances. Week after week, researchers are bringing to light the many healing benefits of this form, which includes it being beneficial to people suffering from osteoarthritis, diabetes, and musculoskeletial pain triggered from working on computers. It is also being looked upon as an alternative option to yoga.
Tai Chi participants improved in nearly all measures, whereas controls did not. Older adults' participation in a community-based Tai Chi program leads to improvement in strength, mobility, and confidence in performing functional tasks.
"Tai chi’s approach of using conscious slow movements is a radical departure from the typical Western approach to fitness, which often focuses on repetitive movements and physical exertion, such as in fitness regimens like running, biking or weight lifting. Further, “success” in the many western sports and athletics is often determined by speed, distance, strength or when competing who “wins”. Tai chi has a completely different set of markers and guideposts for success such as consciousness within body, proper body alignments and developing the smooth flow of energy. It is about generating peace within your entire being." Bruce Frantzis.
International Tai Chi Chuan Symposium: Interview with Dr. Roger Jahnke (Audio: 1hr5min) on his impressions of the 1st International Tai Chi Chuan Symposium on Health, Education, and Cultural Exchange held outside of China. Grandmasters of the five traditional Tai Chi Chuan styles — Chen (Chen Zhenglei), Yang (Yang Zhenduo), Wu/Hao (Wu Wenhan), Wu (Ma Hailong), Sun (Sun Yongtian), — taught daily workshops on their styles. Topics covered during the symposium included biomechanics, kinesthetics, meditation, physical and mental health benefits, therapeutic value, the nature of chi and more. Presenters were from institutions around the world, including Harvard Medical School, Center for Cognitive Therapy, University of Missouri, National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, University of Illinois, University of California, Beijing Sports University (China) and the Mayo Clinic. Having studied and practiced Qigong and Tai Chi for over thirty years, Dr. Jahnke has a unique perspective on the field. He talks about the traditions and development of Tai Chi and Qigong through the millennia; integral Qigong, which modifies Tai Chi for practical applications based on principles; how to live well for as long as possible; the current state of Qigong /Tai Chi science and research; and the impact of the adoption of new, short Tai Chi forms upon traditional Tai Chi practice.
Dr. Jahnke felt this is "one of the most profound experiences I have ever had in my professional life, given the fact that my profession is Qigong." He is a co-founder of the National Qigong Association, a licensed Oriental Medical doctor, author of several texts on Qigong and self-healing practices, Director of the Institute of Integral Qigong and Tai Chi, and an international lecturer. For more information on seminars and training offered by Dr. Jahnke, visit his websites, iiqtc.org, feeltheqi.com, and taichieasy.org. His trainings will be of special interest to those who would like to change careers to be a part of the health care revolution, such as yoga teachers who want to be certified in Qigong and Tai Chi.
The International Yang Family Tai Chi Chuan Association published a Free online Tai Chi Journal -Tai Chi Chuan Masters and Methods PDF 17.02MB). This is the first time that the Association has published a digital edition. One of the Association's main contributions to Tai Chi is the sponsorship of the International Tai Chi Chuan Symposiums, attended by the world's foremost authorities on the five traditional Chinese family schools of Tai Chi. The Journal provides information on the Association, a preview of the 2nd International Symposium, as well as articles by the experts on the art and practice of Tai Chi.
This is a famous form from the Hung Gar style, called 'Tiger and Crane Pair Form' (Fu Hok Seung Ying 虎鶴雙形). It is performed by sifu Yeung Dakyau sifu 杨德友師傅 (90 years old at the time when the video was shot), a Nanjing 南京 practitioner of Naam Siulam Tingong Mun 南少林天罡門 and a TCM physician. He has started the training at the age of 6; currently he should be in his late 90s these days. Play YouTube video.
Harvard Health Publications wrote: Tai chi is often described as "meditation in motion," but it might well be called "medication in motion" … There is growing evidence that this mind-body practice … has value in treating or preventing many health problems. Through the power of ancient Chinese techniques, you can help lessen the power of stress on your mind and body. T'ai chi, originally a Chinese martial art, has evolved into a gentle exercise proven to provide many health benefits. And don't worry, it's something that can be done by anyone – it doesn't require any special skills or fitness level and can benefit people of all ages.
"Developing whole body fascial lines versus isolating muscle alone: By developing the fascia you work everything in the body that the fascia encompasses, including the muscles. Exercising in this way, we do not create stress and tension while in movement like a person does when they only engage muscle groups. There’s NO contracting, No impacting, and No stress — because in Tai Chi we do not hold a stretch, rather we “fang song,” we it let go. Tai Chi is the art of letting go, and the result is soft, springy elastic power, like we experienced in our youth in abundance.
These gentle fascia stretches are not at all like a yoga stretch that you are instructed to hold. We are working to open, hydrate, and lubricate the joints, ligaments, and vertebrae by gently stretching and making more elastic the veins, arteries, nerve tissues, and other connective tissues." More....
Mayo Clinic Says 2.5 Million Americans Now Use Tai Chi to Improve Health. According to the Mayo Clinic more than 2.5 million Americans are practicing tai chi to reduce stress and anxiety, increase energy, stamina and flexibility, muscle strength and definition and balance. There is also evidence that Tai Chi improves immune response, sleeping patterns, lowers cholesterol levels, relieves joint pain and, in older adults, reduces the risk of falls.
"Tai Chi Chuan movements, when done correctly, will act as a tool to help manually flush the body’s lymph system. This doesn’t just happen by chance. These movements were intelligently designed to work with the three largest cluster of lymph nodes in the human body: 1) the Armpit (Heart-1 Ji Quan), shoulder nest area axillary fold (Lung -1 Zhong Fu), 2) the Groin (kua, stomach-30 Qi Chong), and 3) the Back of the Knees (Bladder-40 Wei Zhong).
The lymphatic system plays a vital supporting role to both our Cardiovascular and Immune systems. They are responsible for keeping our blood volume levels where they need to be. They keep you from collapsing from low blood pressure. And they also prevent you from getting infections." More....
In 2001, a coalition of organizations released a national planning document in the area of aging and physical activity. The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Aged 50 and Older was developed to serve as a guide for multiple organizations, associations and agencies, to inform and support their planning work related to increasing physical activity among America's aging population.
To this end, the Blueprint partnership organizations held the National Expert Meeting on Qigong and Tai Chi at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on November 14-16, 2005. The National Blueprint Office at the University of Illinois, in conjunction with the National Council on Aging (NCOA), received funding from the Archstone Foundation to explore the opportunities, issues, and challenges of integrating Qigong and Tai Chi into the Aging Network. National and international experts came from three areas: physical activity and the Aging Network; Qigong/Tai Chi research; and Qigong/Tai Chi practice. The goal was to investigate the challenges of translating existing research models into effective community-based programs for the health benefits of older adults, and to make recommendations in the form of a consensus report.
The meeting was a milestone in the long-term vision to make Qigong and Tai Chi as popular among older Americans as Yoga has become in community fitness centers and exercise programs today. A key outcome of the meeting is the finding that in order to make the health benefits of Tai Chi more readily accessible to the population, shortened and simplified versions of it need to be created.
Taiji (Tai Chi) For Fall Prevention in the Elderly: Training the Trainers Evaluation Project. A large barrier to dissemination of Qigong and Tai Chi to larger populations, especially older adults through programs such as fall prevention, is the lack of qualified teachers. One of the main conclusions in the 2005 National Expert Meeting on Qi Gong and Tai Chi consensus report was that "The experts were willing to concede that a short, high intensity weekend course (14 to 16 hours) with a clearly defined internship or practicum may substitute for longer formal training activities for individuals with prior knowledge in exercise/health and well-developed teaching skills." This research confirmed that brief, intensive weekend training can increase the available workforce to train the elderly in fundamentals of Taiji for fall prevention.
Qi Gong and Tai Chi: promoting practices that promote healthy aging (.PDF). Summary of the recommendations and outcomes of the National Expert Meeting.
Qigong and Tai Chi offer benefits for all ages and walks of life. With so much research focus placed on falls prevention in older adults we may forget that Tai Chi is also a martial art and benefits young, active athletes, especially in the domain of sports rehabilitation and performance. Collegiate level sports teams at the University of Virginia and Cal Poly have integrated Qigong and Tai Chi into their regular conditioning programs. Studies in Europe are investigating Qigong for active recovery following soccer matches. www.IRQTC.org.
Benefits and advantages of Qigong training and its integration in sports?
Increased flexibility, tendon strength, circulation, body awareness, balance, total body neuromuscular efficiency, and mental focus. In my experience, Qigong acts as an exceptional moderate intensity training day activity, as well as pre and post training. Also, Qigong / Tai Chi are both excellent off season activities to help develop improve neuromotor efficiency. I worked extensively with a young soccer player this past off season to develop power, speed, and resiliency. Even as the smallest, younger member on his team he has reported a half-second improvement in his 100 meter dash and a significant improvement in vertical leap. In addition he notes being better “grounded” and able to shield larger players from the ball. These are all things we’ve worked on with specific, “sung” training, Tai Chi jumping, and push hands.
Can Qigong be used as an active recovery method for post-match soccer fatigue?
I added a paper below which shows some significance for strength gains in anaerobically trained athletes. There is a small section on the potential for active recovery methods, which I agree most likely would take place through Qigong’s tendency to mobilize lymph, blood, and immune properties. We have specifically used Qiong as pre-game warm up with significantly positive effect to enhance resiliency and active relaxation.
Sports organizations or teams which perform Qigong?
Cal Poly in San Luis Obispo CA, football, soccer, and volleyball & The University of Virginia swim team.
Types of Qigong training for sports use?
All styles of Qigong are beneficial for both physical and sports enhancement, especially for psychological wellness, mental focus, enhanced circulation, etc… The muscle-tendon forms are specifically useful for strengthening neuromuscular systems and clearing connective tissue binding.
THE IMPACT OF SELF-PRACTICE QIGONG ON STRENGTH GAINS AND WELL-BEING DURING OFF-SEASON TRAINING FOR FALL SPORT ATHLETES (.PDF). A Thesis presented to the Faculty of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Kinesiology in the College of Science and Mathematics by Christopher Shawn White June 2015.
QIGONG AS AN ACTIVE RECOVERY EXERCISE FOR POST-SOCCER MATCH ACTIVE RECOVERY TRAINING SESSIONS (.PDF). D. Anthony Bruce Hazelwood Orellana.
When you cultivate balance and harmony within yourself, or in the world -- that is Tai Chi. When you work and play with the essence and energy of life, nature and the universe for healing, clarity and inner peace -- that is Qigong. Dr. Roger Jahnke, Founder, IIQTC.
Qigong literally means "gonging" or cultivating your vital energy ("qi") over time. As a practice it consists of a combination of movement, self-massage, meditation, and breathing (MORE: What is Qigong, Getting Started with Qigong, Scientific Basis of Qigong). Tai Chi is the most well-known and popular moving form of Qigong. It is essentially meditation in motion, as are all moving forms of Qigong. Qigong practice provides the energetic foundation of Tai Chi, Qigong and Yoga. All of these practices work with the breath, intention, mindfulness, and awareness. Tai Chi, most forms of Qigong, and some types of Yoga add movement, which creates additional health benefits.
The main differences between Tai Chi and Qigong involve how the form is practiced, how the energy is manipulated, the body posture, and whether the practice is done alone.
Also see The Difference between Tai Chi & Qigong on the Energy Arts website.
Preview: Tai Chi - The True History & Principles.
Both Gerda Geddes and Sophia Delza encountered Tai Chi in China by chance during the 1940s. Then, they introduced it to the West. More.
Exercises that engage the mind and body improve memory and other measures of cognitive function.
Peter Harmer and Fuzhong Li have been studying a modified version of the Chinese martial art Tai chi ch’uan at Oregon Research Institute for more than 20 years.
Their latest work recently was published in The Journal of the American Medical Association’s Network Open Geriatrics. It shows that Li’s exercise program, called Tai ji quan: Moving for Better Balance, can reduced injury producing falls in adults over the age of 70 who had fallen in the last year by nearly 53 percent compared to other forms of exercise, such as stretching, balance training or weightlifting. More.