Mindfulness in the Maintenance of Cognitive Capacities in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Author: Quintana-Hernández DJ1, Miró-Barrachina MT2, Ibáñez-Fernández IJ2, Pino AS3, Quintana-Montesdeoca MP3, Rodríguez-de Vera B4, Morales-Casanova D5, Pérez-Vieitez MD6, Rodríguez-García J7, Bravo-Caraduje N7.
1Mindfulness and Health Research Group, La Laguna University and ISCAN Servicios Integrales, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. 2Department of Clinical Psychology, Psychobiology and Methodology, La Laguna University, Spain. 3Mathematics Department, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria University, Spain. 4Nursing Department, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria University, Spain. 5Mindfulness and Health Research Group, La Laguna University, Spain. 6Doctor Negrín University Hospital of Gran Canaria, Spain. 7Nursing home El Pino, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
Conference/Journal: J Alzheimers Dis.
Date published: 2015 Nov 30
Other: Word Count: 259

The Canary Islands longitudinal study on non-pharmacological treatments showed the overall effectiveness of mindfulness in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no specific data on the maintenance of cognitive capacities were presented.
To determine whether the practice of mindfulness modifies the course of cognitive impairment in AD.
Design: Longitudinal, non-inferiority and equivalence, randomized clinical trial, repeated-measures design, with three experimental groups and one control group.
Patients with AD who voluntarily attended the Lidia García Foundation (n = 502). Only those who were treated with donepezil and MMSE ≥18 were included (n = 120).
Over a two-year period, each group carried out three weekly sessions of stimulation based on mindfulness, cognitive stimulation therapy, and progressive muscle relaxation.
Cognitive assessment CAMDEX-R (MMSE and CAMCOG).
Repeated-measures ANOVA (p <  0.05) and the effect size Cohen's d was performed.
The mindfulness group showed significant scores compared with the control and muscle relaxation groups (p <  0.05), while mindfulness and cognitive stimulation therapy were equivalent (p≥0.05). Group cognitive stimulation evolved better than the control (p <  0.05) group but not better than the muscle relaxation group (p≥0.05). The effect size compared over two years was large for the mindfulness group (p≥0.80), moderate for the relaxation group (p≥0.50), and low for the cognitive stimulation group (p≥0.20).
The practice of mindfulness maintained cognitive function over a period of two years. This longitudinal study suggests that mindfulness can be used as a non-pharmacological treatment to slow cognitive impairment in AD.
Alzheimer’s disease; cognitive impairment; cognitive stimulation therapy; mindfulness; non-pharmacological treatments; progressive muscle relaxation
PMID: 26639952