Symptoms Arising From the Diaphragm Muscle: Function and Dysfunction

Author: Bruno Bordoni1, Rohini Kotha2, Allan R Escher3
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Foundation Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, ITA. <sup>2</sup> Anesthesiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, USA. <sup>3</sup> Anesthesiology/Pain Medicine, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, USA.
Conference/Journal: Cureus
Date published: 2024 Jan 29
Other: Volume ID: 16 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: e53143 , Special Notes: doi: 10.7759/cureus.53143. , Word Count: 147

There can be many reasons that damage the function of the diaphragm, either transiently or permanently, involving one hemilate or both muscle portions. The diaphragm is associated only with breathing, but many other functions are related to it. The patient is not always aware of the presence of diaphragmatic dysfunction, and it is not always immediate to identify non-respiratory diaphragmatic symptoms. Pseudoanginal pain, night sweats, difficulty memorizing, or muscular and visceral problems of the pelvic floor are just some of the disorders linked to reduced diaphragmatic contractility. A decline in respiratory contractile force can be the basis for further pathological conditions that can increase the rate of mortality and morbidity. The article reviews the possible symptoms that may be presented by the patient, which are not necessarily related to lung function.

Keywords: breathing; cardio rehabilitation; diaphragm; fascia; manual therapy; osteopathic; osteopathy; physiotherapy.

PMID: 38288323 PMCID: PMC10823461 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.53143