Longitudinal associations between mindfulness and well-being in people with multiple sclerosis.

Author: Pagnini F1,2, Cavalera C1, Rovaris M3, Mendozzi L3, Molinari E1,4, Phillips D2, Langer E2
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup>Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italy. <sup>2</sup>Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. <sup>3</sup>Multiple Sclerosis Center and Rehabilitation Unit, IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy. <sup>4</sup>Psychology Research Laboratory, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
Conference/Journal: Int J Clin Health Psychol.
Date published: 2019 Jan
Other: Volume ID: 19 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: 22-30 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.ijchp.2018.11.003. Epub 2018 Dec 5. , Word Count: 213

Background/Objective: Depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep problems are typical conditions reported in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), often resulting in a reduction of their quality of life (QOL) and well-being. Mindfulness is a multifaceted and complex construct that has been increasingly explored for its correlated to well-being. Despite preliminary evidence, longitudinal data about the impact of mindfulness on QOL in MS remain limited. In addition, Langerian mindfulness, one of the prominent approaches to mindfulness, is yet unexplored in this field. The study aims to examine the longitudinal relationships between two forms of mindfulness (Langerian and contemplative) and QOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep. Method: Within a larger randomized controlled trial of an online mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention, a cohort of 156 people with MS was recruited and assessed for both mindfulness constructs, QOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep problems. Assessments were repeated after 2 and after another 6 months. Results: Both mindfulness constructs were highly correlated with all investigated outcomes. Both Langerian and contemplative mindfulness predicted higher QOL, lower anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep, over time. Conclusions: In both approaches dispositional mindfulness is a protective factor against depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep in people with MS.

KEYWORDS: Ex post facto study; Langerian mindfulness; Mindfulness; Multiple sclerosis; Quality of life

PMID: 30619494 PMCID: PMC6300715 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijchp.2018.11.003